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DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency; formerly ARPA) supported initiatives for ground-based and satellite-based packet networks.First, DARPA established a program to investigate the interconnection of “heterogeneous networks.” This program, called Internetting, was based on the newly introduced concept of open architecture networking, in which networks with defined standard interfaces would be interconnected by “gateways.” A working demonstration of the concept was planned.In order for the concept to work, a new protocol had to be designed and developed; indeed, a system architecture was also required. governmental bodies were heavily involved with networking, including the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Department of Energy, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).In 1995, after extensive review of the situation, NSF decided that support of the NSFNET infrastructure was no longer required, since many commercial providers were now willing and able to meet the needs of the research community, and its support was withdrawn.
Meanwhile, NSF had fostered a competitive collection of commercial Internet backbones connected to one another through so-called network access points (NAPs).
Thus, unlike traditional voice communications, packet switching does not require a single dedicated circuit between each pair of users.
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